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Εκδρομές - Πακέτα


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Bahrain's history goes back to the roots of human civilisation. The main island is thought to have broken away from the Arabian mainland sometime around 6000BC and has almost certainly been inhabited since prehistoric times. The archipelago first emerged into world history sometime around 3000BC as the seat of the Dilmun trading empire. Dilmun, a Bronze Age culture that lasted some 2000 years, benefited from the islands' strategic position along the trade routes linking Mesopotamia with the Indus Valley. In the midst of a region rapidly becoming arid, Dilmun's lush spring-fed greenery gave it the image of a holy island in the mythology of Sumeria, one of the world's earliest civilisations, which flourished in what is today southern Iraq. Dilmun had a similar cachet with the Babylonians, whose Epic of Gilgamesh mentions the islands as a paradise where heroes enjoy eternal life. Some scholars have suggested that Bahrain may be the site of the biblical Garden of Eden.

It was a long ride, but Dilmun eventually declined and was absorbed by the Assyrian and Babylonian empires. The Greeks arrived around 300BC, giving the islands the name Tylos. Bahrain remained a Hellenistic culture for some 600 years. After experimenting with Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Manicheism, in the 7th century many of the islands' inhabitants accepted the personal invitation of the prophet Mohammed to convert to Islam.

After a series of Islamic rulers, Bahrain was conquered by the Portuguese in the early 16th century. The Portuguese used the islands as a pearling port and military garrison. In 1602, the Portuguese governor made the fatal mistake of executing the brother of one of the island's wealthiest traders. The trader, Rukn El-Din, proceeded to lead an uprising that soon drove the Europeans from Bahrain. The islands then became part of the Persian empire, but that association was cut short by the arrival of the Al-Khalifa clan, Bahrain's current ruling family.

In the 1830s, Bahrain signed the first of many treaties with Britain, who offered Bahrain naval protection from Ottoman Turkey in exchange for unfettered access to the Gulf. This arrangement kept the British out of Bahrain's internal affairs until a series of internecine battles prompted the British to install their own choice for emir in 1869.

Although oil was discovered in the area in 1902, large-scale drilling and processing didn't happen until the 1930s, right about the time the world pearl market was collapsing. Oil money brought improved education and health care to Bahrain. It also brought the British closer: the main British naval base in the region was moved to Bahrain in 1935, and the senior British official in the Middle East followed suit in 1946.

Another mark of British influence was the long tenure of Charles Belgrave, who arrived in Bahrain in 1926 as adviser to the emir and stayed for over 30 years. Belgrave helped create the country's educational system and oversaw much of Bahrain's infrastructural development. When Emir Isa bin Salman Al-Khalifa ascended the throne in 1942, he capitalised on Bahrain's superior level of development to take advantage of the oil boom happening in Saudi Arabia and other neighbouring countries, making Bahrain the Gulf's main entrepôt. The waves of Arab nationalism that swept through the region in the 1950s led to increasing anti-British sentiment in Bahrain. Rioting flared during the Suez crisis of 1956, bringing British troops. Britain announced its intention to leave the Gulf 15 years later, prompting Bahrain to proclaim its independence on 14 August 1971.

As the price of oil went through the stratosphere during the 1970s and 1980s, the country grew by leaps and bounds. The Iranian revolution touched off a few violent pro-Iranian demonstrations in Bahrain in 1979 and 1980, but Islamic fundamentalism failed to capture widespread support. Despite the Gulf-wide economic downturn of the late 1980s, Bahrain remained calm and prosperous thanks to its earlier efforts at economic diversification. The country's main shipyard did a roaring trade in the late 1980s, patching up tankers that had been hit by one side or the other during the Iran-Iraq War. The opening of the King Fahd Causeway between Bahrain and Saudi Arabia in 1986 gave a boost to business and tourism.

The 1990s saw Bahrain wracked with external threats and internal strife. Though the Scud missile attack on Bahrain ordered by Saddam Hussein during the Gulf War landed harmlessly in the sea, relations between the two countries hit an all-time low. The emir's refusal to implement democratic reforms led to widespread rioting in the mid-1990s. Bahrain cooperated closely with the UN's monitoring mission to Iraq in the late 1990s, though the US military buildup in the Gulf in early 1998 strained relations between Bahrainis and US military personnel.

Recent years have seen the beginnings of democratic reform in the kingdom. In 2001, Bahrainis - a majority of whom are Shia Muslims, and many of whom have been waiting for democracy since the National Assembly was dissolved in 1975 - supported reforms intended to transform the country into a constitutional monarchy. THe following year, they elected 40 representatives to the Council of Deputies, a dozen of whom were Shia. This, combined with a more relaxed freedom of the press, makes Bahrain something of a drawcard - the tourist industry is on the up and up, fuelled by visits by regional tourists.






   


Σημείωση: Προσπαθούμε να κρατήσουμε την ιστοσελίδα μας ενημερωμένη. Οι πληροφορίες προσφέρονται όπως είναι ("as is") και η εταιρεία δεν αναλαμβάνει ευθύνες για κάθε απώλεια πραγμάτων, βλάβες, παρεξηγήσεις και ταλαιπωρία μεμονωμένων ταξιδιωτών που μπορεί να προκύψει λόγο των πληροφοριών αυτών. Αν ταξιδεύετε μόνοι σας, θα πρέπει να επιβεβαιώνετε τις σημαντικές πληροφορίες όπως έκδοση βίζας, ασφάλεια και υγεία, τελωνεία και μεταφορές.

DAYRISE Holidays αναλαμβάνει ευθύνες εκτέλεσης εκδρομών όπως ακριβώς αναφέρονται στα προγράμματά μας. Καθώς επίσης να σας ενημερώσει για όλα τα απαραίτητα έγγραφα, αλλά και να αναλάβει την έκδοσή των.

 




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